Published Critiques of Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS)  and Gender Role Conflict Research Program

The gender role conflict construct and scale have been critically evaluated by many researchers and authors. Below are the published reviews.

Addis, M.E., Mansfield, A. K., & Sydek, M.R. (2010). Is “masculinity” a problem: Framing the effect of gendered social learning in men. Psychology of men and Masculinity, 11, 77-90.

Beere, C.A. (1990). Gender roles: A handbook of tests and measures. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Betz, N.E. & Fitzgerald, L. (1993). Individuality and diversity: Theory and research in counseling psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 343-381.

Enns, C.Z. (2008). Toward a complexity paradigm for understanding gender role conflict. The Counseling Psychologist, 36, 446-454.

Enns, C. (2000). Gender issue in counseling. In S. Brown & R. Lent (Eds.) Handbook of Counseling Psychology (3 rd Edition). (pp. 601-638), New York, New York.

Good, G.E., Wallace, D.L. & Schuster, T.B. (1994). Masculinity research: A review and critique. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 3, 1.

Hammer, H.H., McDermott, R.C., Levant, R.F., McKelvey, D.K. (2018). Dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the Gender Role Conflict Scale – Short Form (GRCS-SF). Psychology of Men Masculinity, 19, 570-583.

Heppner, P.P. & Heppner, M.J. (2008). The gender role conflict literature: Fruits of sustained commitment. The Counseling Psychologist, 36, 455-461.

Heppner, P.P. (1995). On gender role conflict in men: Future directions and implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 20-23.

Jones, K. & Heesacker, M. (2012). Addressing the situation: Some evidence for the significance of  microcontexts with the gender role conflict construct. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 13, 294-307.

Moradi, B., Tokar, D.M., Schaub, M., Jome, L.M., Sena, G.S. (2000). Revisiting the structural validity of the Gender Role Conflict. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 1, 62-69.

O’Beaglaoich, C., Sarma, K.M., & Morrison, T.G. (in press). New directions in gender role conflict eresearch. In J. Gelfer, (Ed.). Masculinities in a global era. New York: Springer.

O’Neil, J.M. (2008). Summarizing twenty-five years of research on men’s gender role conflict using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New research paradigms and clinical implications. The Counseling Psychologist, 36, 358-445.

O’Neil, J.M. (2008). Complexity, contexualism, and multiculturalism: Responses to the critiques and future direction for the Gender Role Conflict Research Program. The Counseling Psychologist, 36, 358-445.

O’Neil, J.M. (August, 2003) What does the Gender Role Conflict Scale really measure?: Setting the symposium setting. In J.M. & G.E Good (Chairs) Psychological and physical health correlates of gender role conflict. Symposium presented at the annual American Psychological Association convention, Toronto, Canada.

O’Neil, J.M., Good, G. E., Holmes, S. (1995). Fifteen years of theory and research on men’s gender role conflict: New paradigms for empirical research. In R. Levant and W. Pollack (Eds.) The new psychology of men. New York: Basic Books.

Norwalk, K.E., Vandiver, B.J., White, A.M., Englar-Carlson , M. (2011). Factor structure of the Gender Role Conflict Scale in African American and European American men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 12, 128-143.

Rogers, J.R., Abbey-Hines, J., Rando, R.A.(1997). Confirmatory factor analysis of the gender role conflict scale: A cross-validation of Good et., 1995. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 30, 137-145.

Rogers, J.R., Rando, R.A., Bustos, L.M., & Vrable, M.A. (1997). The gender role conflict scale: Enhancing the interpretation of confirmatory factor analysis through follow-up exploratory factor procedures. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED 248448.

Smiler, A. P. (2004). Thirty years after the discovery of gender: Psychological concept and
measures of masculinity. Sex Roles, 50, 15-26.

Thompson, E.H,., Pleck, J.H. & Ferrera, D.L. (1992). Men and masculinity: Scales for masculinity ideology and masculinity-related constructs. Sex Roles, 27, 11/12, 573-607.

Thompson, E.H. & Pleck, J.H. (1995). Masculinity ideologies: A review of research instrumentation on men and masculinities. In R. Levant and W. Pollack (Eds.) A new psychology of men. New York: Basic Books.

Wester, S. R. (2008). Male gender role conflict and multiculturalism: Implications for counseling
psychology. The Counseling Psychologist. 35, 294-324.

Wester, S.R. (2008). Thinking complexly about men, gender role conflict, and Counseling Psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 36, 462-468.

Walker, D.F. Tokar, D.M. & Fischer, A.R. (2000). What are eight popular masculinity-related instruments measuring? Underlying dimensions and their relations to sociosexuality. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 1, 98-1-8.